Understanding Attachment In Abuse And Neglect:implications For Child Development – Article Example

Understanding attachment in abuse and neglect: implications for child development Understanding attachment in abuse and neglect: implications for child development
Effects of caffeine on learning, anxiety, and performance in normal children at school
This investigation was carried out in order to determine the impacts of caffeine on the daily activities, performance, and anxiety behavior in normal prepubertal kids. The method used was to evaluate 21 children in a double-blind, panacea-controlled crossover design. The sampled children were studied in four sessions, giving an interval of one week under conditions that included: placebo, baseline, 5.0mg/kg, and 2.5mg/kg caffeine. They were randomized to placebo order and the two caffeine dosages. Dependent measures were manual dexterity, tests on the subjects’ attention, processing speed, short term memory, and the administration of anxiety rating scales. Saliva was also sampled to establish caffeine levels.
The results showed that caffeine boosted performance on 2 of 4 determinants of the Test of attention variables and on a test carried out on manual deftness in the dominant hand. After the caffeine intake, there was a trend towards a grown present level of anxiety. The sampled children reported feeling considerably less lethargic after caffeine was ingested as compared to the periods after placebo ingestion ((Bernstein, Carroll, Dean, Crosby, Perwien, & Benowitz, 1994).
In conclusion, the study on this small size can be interpreted that caffeine improved performance on motor tasks and on an investigation of attention. However, even though the children were observed to be less sluggish, their anxiety behaviors were on the rise.
According to this article, caffeine is often available with ease and is consumed by children quite frequently, implying that the results are essential and should be replicated. Even though the article seems to mean that it is right for school children to be ingested with caffeine to enhance lively performance, this might have more negative effects on them especially when it comes to issues related to anxiety. Bernstein and other authors in a different article suggested that caffeine should be withdrawn from normal school children because it decreased performance on tasks that needed sustained attention (Bernstein, Carroll, Dean, Crosby, Perwien, & Benowitz, 1998).
References
Bernstein, G. A., CARROLL, M. E., DEAN, N. W., CROSBY, R. D., PERWIEN, A. R., & BENOWITZ, N. L. (1998). Caffeine withdrawal in normal school-age children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(8), 858-865.
Bernstein, G. A., Carroll, M. E., Crosby, R. D., PERWIEN, A. R., GO, F. S., & BENOWITZ, N. L. (1994). Caffeine effects on learning, performance, and anxiety in normal school- age children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(3), 407-415.