Assignement #3 And #6 – Assignment Example
Assignment #3 Before one could give an Operational Definition of Hunger, one has to first properly define what an Operational Definition means. According to the University of Iowa, an Operational Definition is a “definition of a concept in terms of how the concept will be manipulated, measured, or observed” (“Operational Definition”). This means that whenever one defines something, it needs to have very clear words which one could manipulate as a researcher. It should not use vague or circular terms.
Given this clarification, the following are my Operational Definitions of Hunger:
1. Hunger occurs when a rat has not been fed food for 24 hours.
2. Hunger is when a rat has to work hard in order to get food.
3. Hunger is when a rat is given an amount of food less than what it usually consumers.
All these three Operational Definitions can lead into the same thing, which is hunger. That’s where Convergence of Operation takes place. By using various Operational Definitions to achieve the same outcome, a researcher had a wider understanding of that particular phenomenon.
2. One advantage of working in a laboratory is that the environment is controlled. Since the environment is more limited, it is easier to control the variables which one works with. Another advantage is the availability of tools, especially tools for measurement. These are not always available outside of the Lab. Another advantage is the storage of results. One can store in the Laboratory, which means that one could opt to continue or redo the experiment in the future. All this boils down to one gaining adequate information for reporting.
There are also disadvantages in working in a laboratory. One is the cost of working there. It’s not usually cheap. Another disadvantage would be that variations of answers can cause query in research. The environment can also be considered as a disadvantage. It can disturb the sequence of research.
Assignment # 6
1. Participants of a within-subject study are shown five flashcards, each containing a shade of gray. They are made to identify what shade of gray each flashcard contains. The researcher does the whole process in two locations. One is outside a house, where there is sunlight and the other is in a room.
2. The study should be between-subjects since it looks at responses from culture to culture. A good research design would be to come up with a questionnaire which would measure moral and ethical beliefs. The question is then given to three different cultural groups and tribes. The answers are then compared, taking note of the cultural background of each group or tribe.
3. The study is better off as between subjects. A set of words is prepared, to be memorized by two different groups. One group would memorize it in space practice and the other would do it in mass practice.
University of Iowa. Operational Definition [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.uiowa.edu/Faculty/Vecera/31043/opdef.html