Biology Article Summary – Book Report/Review Example

Biology Article Summary The pH scale is a method used to describe acids and bases. The scale ranges from 0 to 14 units. According to the pH scale, substances that fall within the pH scale range of 0 to 7 are referred to as acids. These substances are acidic in nature, and examples include vinegar and lemon juice. On the other hand, substances that fall within the 7 to 14 pH scale range are referred to as bases. These substances are basic in nature, and examples include bleach and baking soda. The number 7 in the pH scale represents neutral substances. pH is described as the concentration of dissolved hydrogen ions in a solution (Blake 1).
A substance that is close to O is a strong acid, and a substance that is close to 14 is a strong base/alkaline. These types of substances are dangerous/caustic in nature, and they are supposed to be handled through proper safety measures. Examples of these substances include lye (a strong base) and battery acid (a strong acid). The acidity or alkalinity of a substance is measured using an indicator. Indicators can be found in nature, and a good example is the red cabbage juice. The indicator changes color to indicate whether the solution is acidic or basic. For instance, an acidic solution will turn pink when red cabbage juice is added to it. On the other hand, a basic solution will turn green when the juice is added. Neutral solutions such as distilled water will not turn their color. Litmus papers are also used as indicators (Blake 1).
Works Cited
Blake, Elizabeth. Acids and bases – the basics of using the pH scale. Ezine @rticles, 29 Nov. 2008. Web. 21 March 2012.