Answer Questions – Coursework Example

Task In recent years, crime has been on the rise and gangs have been responsible for most instances of crime. Criminal behavior encompasses understanding crime as a development process, which starts from childhood (Cassel, 2007). Psychological theories of crime consider the analysis that human beings and differences in the way people portray their actions, which makes them prone to committing criminal acts.  These differences arise from biological makeup, personal tendencies or social interactions, which are different in various individuals. Biological and sociological theories demonstrate an approach that is deterministic in that, criminal behaviors have a physiological starting point and are alarmed with genetics.
Crime theories attempt to explain the reasons why people want to commit crime and they emphasize on learning of skills and facts that authorities decide are of importance. These authorities are social institutions and administrative lawmakers. They show how criminals respond to a stimuli or event that occurs within their environment. Individuals tend to commit a crime when they are short of their basic commodities. The environment one is brought up in dictates how a person conducts himself or herself. The principle of behavioral change in criminal relates and carries most emphasis on reasons why people want to commit crimes. Many scholars argue that most youths are initiated into crime and criminal gangs by their peers and this is because they want to be like them.
Behavioral theories explain that people choose to commit crime on learned behavior, whereby the actions they are used to coming across prompts them to commit crime.
Sentencing guidelines should affect the recommendations made by probation officers in presentence investigation reports. This is because they provide a structured approach in influencing the best suitable sentence while allowing discretion of the judicial. This permits magistrates and judges to have consistency in their movement towards sentencing and decisions transparency.
Probation sentences should be determinate since they will give lawmakers guidelines to follow when sentencing criminals. If they are not determinate some people may be sentenced unfairly by being given longer sentences and others shorter ones for the same crimes

Cassel, E and Bernstein, D. (2007). Criminal Behavior. Boston: Routledge