Open System Theory – Coursework Example
OPEN SYTEM THEORY Open System Theory is a type of system which continuously interacts with the surroundings. The type of interaction can take different forms with a specific boundary, but will depend on a number of factors. In nursing, this theory takes a look at how different disorder may affect the normal lives of people. One of the most common type of health disorders is Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). It is defined as a pathological disquiet that frequently occurs after a person experiences severe trauma which constitutes a threat to the integrity of the individual.
Origin of PTSD
Despite the fact that PTSD is often regarded a new diagnosis, it first appeared in 1980. The history of this disorder has been linked to the history of war. However, the disorder has also been linked with civilian individuals that have been involved in natural disorders, serious accidents and catastrophes. The first diagnosis, according to Diagnostic and statistical manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-1) in the year 1952. It was under the name gross stress reaction. When (DSM-111) was developed after the Vietnam War that lead to further analysis of the disorder (Meleis, 2011). PSTD was then defined as a disorder that is a final pathway that occurs as a consequence of different types of stress .
Pathophysiology of PTSD
In the CNS, the major mediators of the sypmtoms of PTSD are serotonin, dopamine and GABA. Other Neuorotransmitters are Corticotropin –releasing factor. With regards to PNS the automatic nervous system usually mediates these symptoms (Ziegler,2005). For PSTD, there is increased floe in the right parahhipocampal region and their reduced serotonin type 1A receptor binding on the posterior cingulate. Research shows that abnormalities in serotonin neurotransmission in the brain is a good indicator for someone suffering from PTSD.
Effects of PTSD
The primary psychological effect of the traumatic experience is a shattering of innocence. Consequently, this creates the loss of safety and predictability. The patient is usually disillusioned because the traumatic events cannot be processed in the mind due to the overwhelming nature. The trauma takes on the person’s life and its continued events will haunt the person’s normal life. This will depression, anxiety, agitation and a sense of meaninglessness. Extreme cases may lead to suicide .
Meleis, A. I. (2011). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Ziegler, S. M. (2005). Theory-directed nursing practice. New York: Springer Pub. Co.