The academic performance of university students - Factors That Affect the Academic Performance – Essay Example

The academic performance of university students

The researchers know that adolescence is a time of transformation in many areas of an individual’s life. Adolescence start as early as 11 years old and in the midst of these rapid physical, emotional, and social changes, youth begin to question adult standards and the need for parental guidance. It is a time for individuals to make important decisions about their commitment to academics, family, and perhaps friends. For any educational institute students are the most important asset.

The students’ academic performance plays a vital role in creating the ? nest quality who will become leader and manpower of the future generation, consequently responsible for its social and economic development. The academic performance of the students has gained signi? cant attention as year pass. Performance of students is affected by psychological, economic, social, personal and environmental factors mostly for their relationship with their parents and friends that sometimes causes them various stress and depression.

Academic achievement is a key determinant of future educational and occupational success. Friends may help to maintain and exacerbate inequality if friends are sorted on the basis of academic achievement, and also family is considered one of the most influential components of a child’s academic achievement due to the fact that the family is the first source of informal education for a child (Sumari, Hussin, & Siraj, 2010).

Friends play an important role in the educational process. They provide support and resources and can both encourage and discourage academic achievement. Moreover, parenting styles, discipline techniques, involvement with their children, and the home environment have been shown to affect a child’s ability to academically achieve (Sumari, Hussin & Siraj, 2010) parental involvement is best understood as taking multiple forms.

On the other hand, parental involvement appears to be different based on the context of home vs. in school (Giallo, Treyvaud, Matthews, & Kienhuis, 2010). Teachers, parents, and peers all provide adolescents with suggestions and feedback about what they should think and how they should behave in social situations. These role models can be a source of motivation or the other way around.

AUTHORITATIVE- Have high expectations for achievement and maturity, but they also warm and responsive.

DEMOCRATIVE- These parents sets rules and enforce boundaries by having open discussion and using reasoning

PERMISSIVE- Sets very few rules and boundaries and they are reluctant to enforce rules.

PARENTING STYLES

AUTHORITATIVE- Have high expectations for achievement and maturity, but they also warm and responsive.

DEMOCRATIVE- These parents sets rules and enforce boundaries by having open discussion and using reasoning

PERMISSIVE- Sets very few rules and boundaries and they are reluctant to enforce rules.

MUST FRIEND- A best friend, a member of your inner circle, a person you count on when something big happens in your life.

TRUST FRIEND- A friend who shows integrity, someone you feel comfortable with, that you’re always glad to see, but not in your inmost circle

RUST FRIEND- A person you’ve known for a long, long time

JUST FRIENDS- a person who is enjoyable company.

00TYPE OF FRIENDS

MUST FRIEND- A best friend, a member of your inner circle, a person you count on when something big happens in your life.

TRUST FRIEND- A friend who shows integrity, someone you feel comfortable with, that you’re always glad to see, but not in your inmost circle

RUST FRIEND- A person you’ve known for a long, long time

JUST FRIENDS- a person who is enjoyable company.

The parenting styles can affect on how you will choose your friends and it will affect the student’s academic achievement. In line with this, the parenting styles CITATION Bau \l 1033 (Baumrind, n.d.)and type of friends CITATION Rub17 \l 1033 (Rubin, 2013) are the independent variables and self-esteem is the dependent variable.

The parenting styles can affect on how you will choose your friends and it will affect the student’s academic achievement. In line with this, the parenting styles CITATION Bau \l 1033 (Baumrind, n.d.)and type of friends CITATION Rub17 \l 1033 (Rubin, 2013) are the independent variables and self-esteem is the dependent variable.

A person’s upbringing has a profound influence on how they see the world and how they process information (Bowman, 2008). The relationship between a parent, a friend and the child are reflexive to the child’s future.

However, there are studies that shows how both can contribute to the higher success of their academics. This means that parenting and peer influence can have an impact to the development of the students. In line with this there are many factors why students don’t excel academically.

In response to this problem, the following research questions were formulated:

How parents affect the students academically?

How friends affect the students academically?

How does parenting style affects on the academic performance of adolescents in secondary schools?

Hypotheses

Based from the research questions mentioned above the following hypotheses were formulated

Parents can affect students positively by giving some tips on how they will overcome problems in life that may affect the academics by teaching techniques that can help students academically. However, parents can also affect students negatively by the parenting styles that may lead students to become rebellious and can lead the students not to go to school, failing marks, or badly to be involved to a fraternity, street fights and gang war.

Being in a group of friends will give positive and negative sides, there are several ways in which friends or peer groups influence their friends’ academic performance. The positive effect of friends will be seen If the students notices that friends caring about school and earning good grades, it will influence the students to push themselves harder academically in order to keep up with that friends and also for him to feel that he is fit in that group. Or, if a student achieving average grades suddenly starts to like an honor roll student, grades may improve drastically to make sure to give a good shot to that person he likes.

It is important for students to feel like equals among their peers and be accepted socially. However, the negative effect is when a student associates with a crowd that does not have high scores or high level of importance, that student is most likely going to slack off in order to fit in. Some students who are in fact very bright will deliberately perform poorly just so it does not seem like they are outperforming their peers that person will choose to let go of his academic skills just to fit on that group that is a bad influence to him.

In these types of situations, students may never reach their full potential and will refuse to commit to their studies, just so their friends can accept them. Parenting styles greatly affects the behavior of a student especially on self-efficacy, self-esteem, and identity development, which are associated with academic achievement (Brown & Iyengar, 2008). Moreover, the progress in children’s achievement is influenced by the decision that is made by both parents and their children to cooperate or confront each other.

In addition, children’s academic motivation and behavior are directly influenced by their parents’ behavior, which are seen as the external factor. For instance, there is a positive outcome for both parents and children when parents interact in a fun and loving way during children’s homework time (Morawska, 2007). Conversely, when parents are neglectful, academic disengagement and problem behavior are generated (Brown & Iyengar, 2008). This causes a huge impact on the students’ behavior. Significance of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to examine the influence of family and friends on a student’s academic achievement. The students will have a knowledge and understanding about the different situations that they might encounter that can affect their academic performance. The parents will also benefit from this study, since they will be aware of the things or situations in their house that can affect their children’s academic performance. Friends will also profit in this study since peer group influence, is a powerful force for both social and academical development.

Scope and Delimitations

Determining the impacts of parents and peer group on a students’ academic performance was the focus of this research. The information needed will be gathered using an open-ended type of questionnaire. All information and conclusions drawn from this study will be obtained only to this particular group of students. This study is limited only to the Junior High School students and Senior High School students of Ina ng Buhay Catholic School during the Academic year 2017-2018.

Definition of Terms

Peer group: are children or adolescents who are of the same age or maturity, level and have regular contact with each other.

Peer influence: peer influence can be described as the pressure adolescents feel from their peers.

Adolescence: refers to the transitory period where a child moves to adulthood. The adolescent years fall within 12-18 years.

Academic performance: refers to the intellectual ability of an individual when it comes to academic or education.

Upbringing: refers to a particular way of bringing up a child.

Profound: a deep impact, insight or understanding.

Parenting Style: The overall emotional climate of the parent-child relationship- an affective context of sorts that sets the tone for the parents’ interactions with the child.



Factors That Affect the Academic Performance

Education enables the individuals and society to make an all round participations in development process by acquiring knowledge, ability, skills and attitudes. Academic performance is affected by different factors. We cannot deny the fact that these factors could really affect the student’s academic performance. Some students who are influences by peer groups or barkadas tends to cutting class which may results their low academic performance. The peer factors like smoking may cause disease that would become hindrance to their success and this differs from other insight about those factors and their purpose and existence.

Beginning at birth, the attachment formed between parents and child predicts the quality of relationships with teachers and peers and places a leading role in the development of such social functions as curiosity, arousal, emotional regulation, independence and social competence. The brains of infants are hardwired for only six emotions: joy, anger, surprise, disgust, sadness and fear. There are reasons why people or even students smoked. They feel cool if they were practicing such things and they have desire to be noticed and it gives superiority or power to them. Sometimes students tend to gamble especially in sports just for amusement. It is stress removing and a way to forget their problems. The ideas of practicing this thing vary from one another.

To investigate the influence of factors on students academic performance by comparing the accuracy of different classifiers. The result will be useful in identifying good as well as students who perform poorly and will be potential dropouts. Students are categorizing in five groups according to their performance: “Very good” students, who have a high probability of succeeding; “Good” students, who are above average and with little efforts, may succeed with good grades; “Satisfactory” students, who may succeed’ “Below satisfactory” students, who require more efforts to succeed; and “Fail”, who have a probability to dropping out.

The quality of student’s performance remains at top priority for educators. It is meant for making a difference locally, regionally, and globally. These variables are inside and outside the schools that affect student’s quality of academic achievement. These factors may be termed as student factors, family factors, school factors and peer factors. In this era of globalization and technological revolution education is considered as first step for every human activity. It plays a vital role in the development of human capital and is linked with an individuals will being an opportunities for better living. It ensures the acquisition of knowledge and a skill that enables individual to increase in productivity also leads towards new sources of earning which enhances the economic growth of a country. Educators, trainers, and researchers, have long been interested in exploring variables contributing effectively for quality of performance of learners.

Most of the experts argue that the low socioeconomic status has negative effect on academic performance of students because the basic needs of students remain unfulfilled and hence they do not perform better academically. Children are socialized by the people with whom they associate; through the daily interaction over the course of many years, available social customs are taught and fostered. Other children as well as adults can have a great impact on a board range of issues in the child’s life, including achievement is important for parents, educators and policy makers. In particular, academic achievement and the often corresponding level of educational attainment tend to predict the average earnings an individual may secure over a lifetime achievement. Through this research, the students will be provided data on the factors that may affect their learning in school. Their academic skill and competence would most likely be improved. School administrators, may also guided in the formulation of future modification of educational policies, curriculum and strategies toward a more effective delivery of learning.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to find out the factors that may affect the selected third year criminology students of Innovative College of Science and Technology.

Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the factors that may affect the academic performance of the selected third year students of Innovative College of Science and Technology? A. Student factor

1. Lack of confidence

2. Skill

3. Negligence

B. Family factor

1. Financial problem

2. Broken family

3. Socio-Economic

C. Peer factor

1. Gambling

2. Smoking

3. Drinking liquor

4. Playing computer games

5. Visiting social network

2. What are the effect of different factors in the students’ academic performance in terms of their grade in preliminary examination and midterm examination in all subjects? 3. Is there any significant relationship between the factors that may affect the academic performance of the selected third year criminology students of Innovative College of Science and Technology?

Statement of Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between factors that may affect the academic performance of the selected third year criminology students of Innovative College of Science and Technology. Significance of the Study

Primarily, this study is undertaken the factors that may affect the academic performance of the selected third year criminology students of Innovative college of Science and Technology. Student.It would benefit the students as their performance will be improved through the evaluation of the content of this study. This could also help students in identifying their whether factors they practice affects their academic performance and attain higher level of education. SchoolAdministrator.May also guide in the formulation of future modification of educational policies, curriculum and strategies toward a more effective delivery of learning. Future Researchers. They may use the findings of this study as baseline data or for possible in depth research work on the factors that may affect the academic performance of the students.

Parents. This will serve them as a guide to determine what kind of factors that affects the academic performance of their children.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study focuses mainly on the factors that may affect the academic performance of the selected third year criminology students of Innovative College of Science and Technology.

This study is bound to gather and collect data which will be reliable to further studies about the factors that may affect the academic performance of the selected criminology students of Innovative College of Science and Technology.

Definition of Terms

Alcohol.Liquor that contains ethanol and has the potential to intoxicate drinkers and it can be burned as fuel.

Broken Family. Is family with children involve were parents are legally separated.

Financial Problem. A risk factor related to the family’s inability to provide sufficient financial resources to meet minimum needs.

Gambling.The wagering of money or something of material value of an event with an uncertain outcome with primary intent of winning additional money and or material needs.

Negligence.Failure to take proper care in doing something.

Skill. The ability to something well.

Smoking.Practice in which substance, most commonly tobacco or cannabis, is burn and smoke is tasted or inhaled.

Social Networking. The practice of expanding the number of one’s business and/or social contacts by making connections through individuals.

Theoretical Framework

The study will be supported by the theories that may provide information about factors that may affect the academic performance of the selected third year students of Innovative College of Science and Technology.

Malyan, (2011) the Theory of Alcoholism. States that the main reason of the students is still not determine and obscure. Drinking alcohol or wine for their parties or simple gatherings. Native peers indeed manifest how drinking alcohol from not to be the individual according to the Filipino forum. Generally, drinking alcohol causes intoxicating pleasure or trauma. It chemically mixes with the thoughts and process of the brain for the respective time, though some studies and experiment in US stated some good benefits from wines. This theory only shows that there are advantage and disadvantage from taking liquor to students’ performance. Graham et al., (2006)Heavy alcohol use affects many parts of the brain, but the most vulnerable cells are those associated with memory, coordination, and judgment. Mettille, (2008)clearly states that dangerous drinking is likely to affect students disproportionately.

The health consequences a student may experience as a result of dangerous drinking have an expected range, from manageable situations to potentially fatal outcomes. Verinikina, (2003) Theory of Play. Computer games and children’s development states that the current generation of the children have been born into a computer environment; it has become a normal part of their everyday lives. However this theories centre only in factors and has not been yet sufficient enough to push a fact about the matter. According to several Filipino forums, the last on the list is the social networking. People seem to find social networking through internet addictive. It enables to communicate abroad and socialize locally and internationally. Mainly, social networking is use to find people and to know people. This theory shows that people find social networking through internet is addictive especially to students. Although it is not yet proven that it affects the students’ performance. Social media has several effects on academic work — some more positive than others.

According to data gathered from several sources by “OnlineEducation.net”, Face book and Twitter are used to great benefit — sometimes. Students welcome online engagement and resources; around 75% of student respondents said they’d like to do some online collaboration for class, in fact.Also, social media may have a positive impact on students’ sense of themselves in the community. Social media-using students were twice as likely as other students to feel well-liked by their peers and to participate in extracurricular activities. And 20% more of Face book-using students (as compared to students who didn’t use Face book) said they felt connected to their school and community. However, negative effects abound. Students who use Face book and hit the books simultaneously found their multitasking led to 20% lower grades than those of their more focused peers. Face book-using students also made less money during school from part-time work, putting in around five hours per week as opposed to 16 hours per week for a typical, unplugged counterpart.

Walberg, (2000)Theory of Educational Productivity determined three groups of nine factors based on affective, cognitive and behavioral skills for optimization of learning that affect the quality of academic performance: Aptitude (ability, development and motivation); instruction (amount and quality); environment (home, classroom, peers and television). The home environment also affects the academic performance of students. Educated parents can provide such an environment that suits best for academic success of their children. The school authorities can provide counseling and guidance to parents for creating positive home environment for improvement in students’ quality of work. The academic performance of students heavily depends upon the parental involvement in their academic activities to attain the higher level of quality in academic success. There is a range of factors that affect on the quality of performance of students. A series of variables are to be considered when to identify the affecting factors towards quality of academic success. Identifying the most contributing variables in quality of academic performance is a very complex and challenging job. The students in public schools belong to a variety of backgrounds depending upon their demography.

Conceptual Framework

The effects of different factors in students grade during preliminary examination and midterm examination in the following subjects: a. Traffic Management

b. Correctional Institution

c. Police Personnel Management

d. Forensic Ballistics

e. Basic Economics

f. Questioned Document Examination

g. Philippine Literature

The factors that may affect the academic performance of the selected third year criminology students of Innovative College of Science and Technology in terms of: A. Student factor

1. Lack of confidence

2. Skill

3. Negligence

B. Family factor

1. Financial problem

2. Broken family

3. Socio-Economic

C. Peer factor

1. Gambling

2. Smoking

3. Drinking liquor

4. Playing computer games

5. Visiting social network

IV DV

Figure 1

CHAPTER III

Research Methodology

This chapter is the presentation of the methodology of research, sampling, procedure in data gathering and statistical treatment of the data.

Methodology of Research

The researcher use Descriptive Method of research to determine the factors that affect the academic performance of the selected third year criminology. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind the situation. It is quantitative and uses surveys and panels and also the uses of probability sampling. Descriptive research is the exploration of the existing certain phenomena. The details of the facts won’t be known. The existing phenomena facts are known to the persons.

Sampling Scheme

Purposive Sampling is the ideal strategy of the researcher using a sampling in which the individual units are selected by some purposive method. It is therefore subject to biases of personal selection and for this reason is now rarely advocated in its crude form.

Respondents of the Study

The respondent of the study composed of 30 selected third year criminology students. The researchers used questionnaires on the accomplishment of the result.

Research Instrument

This research work utilized the Survey Questionnaire to gather information to the respondents in relation to the subject on hand.

Scaling and Qualification

To qualify the data from the respondents, the researchers will apply the 5 points rating scale regarding the level in the relation to different methods which will be interpreted.

Table A. Numerical Scale, Statistical Limit and Verbal Description Numerical Scale| Statistical Limit| Verbal Description| 5| 4.50-5.00| Always (A)|

4| 3.50-4.49| Frequent(F)|

3| 2.50-3.49| Often(O)|

2| 1.50-2.49| Sometimes(S)|

1| 1.00-1.49| Never (N)|

Data Gathering Procedure

The researcher’s specific purpose is to validate the questionnaires in gathering significant data for the assistance of their adviser. * Letter of request to conduct survey to the School Administrator of Innovative College of Science and Technology to allow us to access the information we need. * Distribution of the survey materials to the respondents * Gathering of the disseminated survey questionnaires in preparation of the computation * Heed astatistician’s advice for the computations, interpretation of the respondent’s response. * Consult some arguable matters on the result from a thesis professor or adviser.

Statistical Tools to be used

Aset of Descriptive Statistics such as the arithmetic mean, frequency, ranking and percentage of the factors that affect the academic performance of the students in terms of Students factors, family factors and peer factors.