CHAPTER 1 REPORT – Term Paper Example

Substance Addiction Affiliation: Introduction Substance use and abuse has been a historical event where different substances were used in the previous decades for different reasons. Their overuse was also explained differently than it is explained today. They had no clear neurobiological or physical explanations of their etiology unlike today. There are different theories explaining the etiology of addiction, two of which are discussed below (Heyman 2009).
Disease Model
This is an etiology of addiction which takes the view that addiction is a primary disease and not a secondary cause of another disease. The disease is thought to be progressive through five stages all of which have different symptoms associated with them. The model also states that the disease is incurable once acquired and hence no treatment can help the individual with this disease. The only solution is therefore abstinence from the substances (Waylon 2010).
Moral Model
This model states that addiction is as a result of the personal choices an individual makes. It suggests that the solution to the addiction is religious beliefs which will remove the sin that causes the person to take the substances leading to the addiction. This is commonly used by religious fanatics and even some legal systems (Potter-Efron 2002).
The two models are similar in that they believe the only cure for the addiction is through avoiding it by pure abstinence or religion. They however differ in that the disease model insists that addiction is a disease while the moral model insists it is as a result of sin and hence a person can avoid the sin (Cunningham and Padwa 2010).
Conclusion
All these models and the rest all have some form of reality and no one model can be said to be wrong. However it is advisable that individuals use a multi perspective model which employs all the models when trying to explain addiction and even when trying to find a solution to the addiction problem (Miller et al. 2011).
Reference
Cunningham, J. and Padwa, H. (2010). Addiction: a reference encyclopedia. California: ABC- CLIO.
Heyman, G. (2009). Addiction: a disorder of choice. London: Harvard University Press.
Miller, W. et al. (2011). Treating Addiction: A Guide for Professionals. London: Guilford Press.
Potter-Efron, R. (2002). Shame, guilt and alcoholism: treatment in clinical practice. New York: Routledge.
Waylon, C. (2010). Disease Model of Addiction. Pennsylvania: VDM Publishing House Ltd.