See Below CJ250 – Term Paper Example
Chronic Offenders Those who keep on committing serious crimes are called “Chronic Offenders”. These people do not stick to a single crime rather repeatedly execute different crimes in different parts of the country which results in start-up of a criminal track. The concept of criminal track refers to recurrence of crimes and individual’s involvement in its characterization.
The Landmark Study on the issue
The Landmark Study, which was published in 1972, is based on the research by Marvin Wolfgang together Robert Figlio and Thorsten Sellin. They followed the criminal record of a cohort of 9,945 boys born in Philadelphia – from birth till 18 years of age. Data was collected from police and school records. The most crucial finding of this research was the so-called chronic offender. The data revealed that 54% of the sample size (boys selected) was found to be frequent offenders including both chronic & non-chronic recidivists. The more stunning results showed that though only 6% of the total sample was found as delinquent recidivists, they were involved in committing 52% of all offenses. This group repeatedly carried out murders, robberies and planned assaults, which clearly places juveniles at a high risk of becoming chronic offenders. They identified that arrest and court trial did not much help prevent the chronic offenders. In fact the more the punishment, the greater the chance they were to resort to criminal activities. Two factors were found escalating recidivism: (1) the severity of the original crime, and ((2) the height or intensity of punishment. The research concluded with a note that efforts to eliminate delinquent behavior by means of juvenile justice system may be ineffective.
M. Schumacher & G.A. Kurz (2001) states in their conclusion, “There will never be sufficient resources to deflect all juvenile delinquents from a pattern of offending. It is essential, instead, to focus intervention efforts where the need and the potential benefits are the greatest. Such a concentration of efforts may lead to a solution of the 8% problem and have a meaningful impact on community safety and on the future of many youth who might otherwise persist in lives of crime and violence.”
Wolfgang and his associates conducted another study on children born in 1958 and identified that relatively a small number of chronic offenders were found guilty of committing significant part of delinquent acts. His findings were seconded by researchers who conducted researches in USA and UK.
M. Schumacher & G.A. Kurz (2001). The 8% Solution, Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention (39), Retrieved September 13, 2011, from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/fs200139.pdf